Chip Tuning – What And How ?

Posted by admin On January 22, 2012 ADD COMMENTS

Chip Tuning – What And How Much ?

This information handles the first and most frequently upgrades of the turboengines.
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It is :

Chiptuning / ECU-tuning / OBD tuning / OBDtuning / Software tuning

The upgrade is known under many names, but what you really want to is to have control over the engines function.

For the turbo engine you want to change 3 things to get the most power out of your engine and monitor

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Adjust:

*  Turbo Pressure

* Fuel-mixture

* Ignition timing

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Turbo Pressure
Turbo Pressure is measured in PSI or BAR
1 BAR = 14.4 PSI
1 PSI = 0,07 BAR

 

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Your stock turbocharged engine is running a turbo pressure which is mild against the engine.
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There is a reasonable higher limit, which might be 0.1% higher than stock or 50% higher on a stock turbocharger. This is down to different factors, which in the first case mostly if dependent of the turbocharger flow.
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How much can you gain by adjusting to a higher turbo pressure ?
The direct effect of higher turbo pressure is up to 1/1 – meaning that if you put 1bar turbo pressure on an engine you get the double power of what it was without any turbo pressure.
It is off course not always this simple!
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To understand what you actually can gain we must look at a flow map for a turbocharger.
A flow map is used to locate the amount of air which is going out of a specific charger at a specific turbo pressure.
On the Horisontal Axis (X-Axis) you see the flow – here measured in LBS/MIN.
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On the Vertical Axis (Y-Axis) you see the Atmospheric pressure – here measured in BAR.
To plot in your turbo-pressure you need to add 1.0BAR the your number.
IF you are running 1.5BAR turbopressure you to to 2.5BAR on the Axis.
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On the Turbo flow map above 1.5BAR Turbo Pressure (2.5BAR on the Axis)
Is ranging from 20LBS/MIN to 37LBS/MIN.
To know where you are specific located in this range you need to understand a bit more about the engine function.
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Back to what you want to know here.
How much can you gain with the turbocharger you have in your car!
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How much power are you currently making ?
We go by an example in which the above map is usefull.
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An engine from Nissan SR20DET is running 0.6bar stock making 200HP
The turbo flow map is about the same as the above.
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To calculate flow into HP, we take the LBS/MIN and multiple by 10 (9.5 – 10.5).
1.6BAR on the Y-AXIS and 200/10 = 20LBS/MIN on the X-AXIS.
The plot on the map is directly in the lowest part of the inner circle.
In the the inner circle is the sweet spot, in which you get a very effective air flow. (easy HP).
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If we want to raise the turbo pressure and stay within the inner circle.
We can to up to 1.3BAR , which translates into flow of 30LBS/MIN.
This should in direct comparison give 300HP. It is though not this simple.
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We have though concluded that the turbocharger of this engine is appropriate for a horsepower output
up to about 50% higher than stock.
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So is it safe to adjust the Turbo Pressure to maximum within the sweet spot ?
Well your turbocharger will not complain to you, but your engine might do so.
So changing the turbopressure must be done with thoughts about the other engine parts.

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Fuel Mixture
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Fuel mixture is about making the most power out of the air in the engine – in the safest possible way.
When the car is running part throttle you will want to have a fuel-mixture which is as economic as possible. Economic fuel burning is running at very high temperatures.
If you run in the most economic way under full boost and full throttle, you risk burning holes in pistons or valves.
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You will want to run a mixture of:
14.7 : 1 (Economic driving) – This is making the minimal pollusion obtainable.
12.0:1 – 13.5:1 (Under full throttle) – This is a where you get the most power (The higher the number – The more heat, so be carefull)
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Flow of your fuel system – Capability of your fuelsystem :
Your engine is running with a fuel-system which is typical not intended for tuning of any kind so you need to check what flow your system is supporting :
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Fuel Injectors :
You can put in your bosch number here and have a look-up of the size the injector is
You can check your injector size here :
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In short
4cyl Engines needs 4 injectors of  ~ 250ml @ 3bar – To make 200HP
To deeper into Tuning of your fuel system : http://euroturbo.net/tuning-guides/tuning-the-fuelsystem/
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Fuelpump :
To know the capability of your fuelpump you can test it your self.
It is adviced that you test the fuelpump in 2 and best 3 stages:
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* Test without fuel pressure (No Resistance) :
In short you want to see how mcuh fuel is running to your fuel lines without the resistance of the fuel pressure regulator.
Hook up a hose from your fuelpump to a measuring cup – Put power to the fuelpump and measure the flow over 60 seconds.
Your number x 60minutes = flow pr hour.
The flow number you get without resistance is important if you want to use the original pump with an external pump in line.
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Testing with fuel pressure (Resistance) :
In short you want to see how mcuh fuel is running to your fuelrail with the resistance of the fuel pressure regulator.
Hook up a hose from your fuelpump though a Fuel pressure regulator into to a measuring cup – Put power to the fuelpump and measure the flow over 60 seconds.
Your number x 60minutes = flow pr hour.
The flow number you get with resistance is important if you want to use the original pump as the only fuel pump to feed the injectors.
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In short
Engines needs needs fuel flow of  ~70L/Hour to make 200HP
(Don’t ever make 200HP with a flow from your pump of 70L/Hour – You always want to have a safety factor also)
To deeper into Tuning of your fuel system : http://euroturbo.net/tuning-guides/tuning-the-fuelsystem/
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Ignition
Information to be added.

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